A.7.1 Estimation of FE and Var (FE)

Let CISk, k = 1,2,…niter represent the ISM mean for the kth iteration (replicate) based on m increments. An estimate of the DU mean, CDU, based on niter iterations is given by

Bias can then be expressed as

FE in the estimate, ,also referred to a relative bias, is given by

Measures of variance in ISM replicate means, Var(CIS), and mean squared error (MSE) are given by

Finally, an estimate of variance in FE, Var(FE), is given by