A.5 BULK MATERIAL SAMPLING MAPS (M3-A TO M3-C)

In this section, sampling (e.g., ISM) is conducted on DUs consisting of heterogeneous bulk material with CH and DH; appropriate increment sample support(SS)/mass and increments collection sampling patterns are used to address GSE and FE. Increments of predetermined SS (e.g., radius of 0.01, 0.05 units) are collected, and all points contained in that SS make that increment. This operation addresses small-scale DH and GSE. Since FE cannot be eliminated (addressed) completely, it is essential to address GSE to obtain an unbiased estimate of the DU mean. It is also shown that the use of simple random sampling is needed to obtain a representative ISM sample yielding an unbiased estimate of the DU mean, an observation supported by statistical sampling theory (Cochran 1977; Elder, Thompson, and Myers 1980).