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10. References
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USEPA. 1997b. Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Process for Designing and Conducting Ecological Risk Assessments. Interim Final. EPA/540/R-97/006. OSWER 9285.7-25. Washington, D.C.: Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/ecorisk/ecorisk.htm.

USEPA. 1998a. EPA’s Contaminated Sediment Management Strategy. EPA/823/R-98/001. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water. http://www.itrcweb.org/contseds-bioavailability/References/PCBContaminatedSedimentsStrategy.pdf.

USEPA. 1998b. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Discharge in Waters of the U.S.—Testing Manual: Inland Testing Manual. EPA/823/B-98/004. http://www.itrcweb.org/contseds-bioavailability/References/Evaluation-Analytical-methods-USACE-EPA.pdf.

USEPA. 1998c. Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. EPA/630/R-95/002F. Washington D.C.: Risk Assessment Forum. http://www.itrcweb.org/contseds-bioavailability/References/ECOTXTBX.pdf.

USEPA. 1998d. National Sediment Bioaccumulation Conference, Proceedings. EPA/823/R-98/002. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water.

USEPA. 1999a. Data Collection for the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule. Washington, D.C.: Office of Solid Waste.

USEPA. 1999b. Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities, Vol. I. EPA/530/D-99/001A. Washington, D.C.: Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. www.epa.gov/osw/hazard/tsd/td/combust/eco-risk/volume1/chap1.pdf.

USEPA. 2000a. Bioaccumulation Testing and Interpretation for the Purpose of Sediment Quality Assessment: Status and Needs.EPA/823/R-00/001, EPA/823/R-00/002. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water. http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/sediments/cs/biotesting_index.cfm.

USEPA. 2000b. GORE-SORBER® Water Quality Monitoring. USEPA/600/R-00/091. Environmental Technology Verification Report. Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Development. www.epa.gov/nrmrl/std/etv/pubs/01_vr_gore.pdf.

USEPA. 2000c. Guidance for Assessing Chemical Contaminant Data for Use in Fish Advisories, Vol. 1: Fish Sampling and Analysis, 3rd ed.EPA/823/B-00/007. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/fishshellfish/techguidance/risk/upload/2009_04_23_fish_advice_volume1_v1cover.pdf.

USEPA. 2000d. Methodology for Deriving Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Human Health 2000. EPA/822/B-00/004. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water. http://www.itrcweb.org/contseds-bioavailability/References/2005_05_06_criteria_humanhealth_method_complete.pdf.

USEPA. 2001a. “Ecological Risk Assessment Bulletins—Supplement to RAGS.” Region 4. Originally published November 1995; website version last updated November 30, 2001. http://www.epa.gov/region4/superfund/programs/riskassess/ecolbul.html.

USEPA. 2001b. Method for Assessing the Chronic Toxicity of Marine and Estuary Sediment-Associated Contaminants with the Amphipod Leptochirus plumulosus, 1st ed. EPA/600/R-01/020. Newport, Ore.: Office of Research and Development, Western Ecology Division. http://www.itrcweb.org/contseds-bioavailability/References/guidancemanual.pdf.

USEPA. 2001c. Methods for Collection, Storage and Manipulation of Sediments for Chemical and Toxicological Analyses: Technical Manual. EPA/823/B-01/002. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water.

USEPA. 2002a. Clinch and Powell Valley Watershed Ecological Risk Assessment. EPA/600/R-01/050. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Environmental Assessment. www.itrcweb.org/contseds-bioavailability/References/30002H3U.pdf.

USEPA. 2002b. Guidance for Comparing Background and Chemical Concentrations in Soil for CERCLA Sites. EPA 540-R-01-003. OSWER 9285.7-41. Washington, D.C.: Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/pdf/background.pdf.

USEPA. 2002c. Principles for Managing Contaminated Sediment Risks at Hazardous Waste Sites. OSWER Directive 9285.6-08. Washington, D.C.: Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. http://cluin.info/download/contaminantfocus/sediments/92-85608-s.pdf.

USEPA. 2002d. Standard Operating Procedures for Benthic Invertebrate Field Sampling. Chicago: Great Lakes National Program Office. www.epa.gov/greatlakes/monitoring/sop/chapter_4/LG406.pdf.

USEPA. 2002e. Technical Basis for the Derivation of Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Guidelines (ESGs) for the Protection of Benthic Organisms: Nonionic Organics. Draft. EPA/822/R-02/041. Washington, D.C.: Water Resource Center. http://www.itrcweb.org/contseds-bioavailability/References/2009_03_11_criteria_sediment_EPA822R02041.pdf.

USEPA. 2003a. The Biotic Ligand Model: Technical Support Documents for Its Application to the Evaluation of Water Quality Criteria for Copper. EPA/822/R-03/027. Washington, D.C.: Office of Science and Technology.

USEPA. 2003b. Generic Ecological Assessment Endpoints (GEAEs) for Ecological Risk Assessment. EPA/630/P-02/004F. Washington, D.C.: Risk Assessment Forum. http://www.epa.gov/raf/publications/pdfs/GENERIC_ENDPOINTS_2004.PDF.

USEPA. 2003c. Procedures for the Derivation of Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the Protection of Benthic Organisms: Endrin. EPA/600/R-02/009. Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Development. http://www.epa.gov/nheerl/download_files/publications/endrin.pdf.

USEPA. 2003d. Procedures for the Derivation of Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the Protection of Benthic Organisms: PAH Mixtures. EPA/600/R-02/013. Office of Research and Development. http://www.epa.gov/nheerl/download_files/publications/PAHESB.pdf.

USEPA. 2004a. Ecological Risk Assessment for General Electric(GE)/Housatonic River Site, Rest of River. Boston: New England Region. http://www.itrcweb.org/contseds-bioavailability/References/215498_ERA_FNL_TOC_MasterCD.pdf.

USEPA. 2004b. Five-Year Review Report for the Sangamo Weston/Twelve Mile Creek/Lake Hartwell PCB Contamination Superfund Site—Operable Unit Two, Pickens, South Carolina. Atlanta: Region 4. www.epa.gov/superfund/sites/fiveyear/f04-04014.pdf.

USEPA. 2004c. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Vol. I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part E, Supplemental Guidance for Dermal Risk Assessment). EPA/540/R-99/005. OSWER 9285.7-02EP. PB99-963312. Washington, D.C.: Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation. www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/ragse/pdf/introduction.pdf.

USEPA. 2005a. Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites. EPA/540/R-05/012. OSWER 9355.0-85. Washington, D.C.: Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. www.epa.gov/superfund/health/conmedia/sediment/pdfs/guidance.pdf.

USEPA. 2005b. Guidance for Development of Ecological Screening Levels. OSWER Directive 9285.7-55, Revised. Washington, D.C.: Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. www.epa.gov/ecotox/ecossl/pdf/ecossl_guidance_chapters.pdf.

USEPA. 2005c. Procedures for the Derivation of Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the Protection of Benthic Organisms: Metal Mixtures (Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Nickel, Silver, and Zinc). EPA/600/R-02/011. Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Development. http://www.epa.gov/nheerl/download_files/publications/metalsESB_022405.pdf.

USEPA. 2006a. Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process. EPA/240/B-06/001. Washington, D.C.: Office of Environmental Information. www.epa.gov/quality/qs-docs/g4-final.pdf.

USEPA. 2006b. Systematic Planning: A Case Study for Hazardous Waste Site Investigations, EPA QA/CS-1. EPA/240/B-06/004. Washington, D.C.: Office of Environmental Information. www.epa.gov/quality1/qs-docs/casestudy-final.pdf.

USEPA. 2007a. Aquatic Life Ambient Freshwater Quality—Copper, 2007 Revision. EPA/822/R-07/001. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water. http://www.itrcweb.org/contseds-bioavailability/References/2009_04_27_criteria_copper_2007_criteria-full.pdf.

USEPA. 2007b. Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE): Phases I, II, and III Guidance Document. EPA/600/R-07/080. Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Development. http://www.epa.gov/nheerl/download_files/publications/Sediment%20TIE%20Guidance%20Document.pdf.

USEPA. 2008a. Evaluating Ground-Water/Surface-Water Transition Zones in Ecological Risk Assessments. EPA/540/R-06/072. Publication 9285.6-17. ECO Update/Ground Water Forum Issue Paper. Washington, D.C.: Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/ecoup/pdf/eco_update_08.pdf.

USEPA. 2008b. Procedures for the Derivation of Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the Protection of Benthic Organisms: Compendium of Tier 2 Values for Nonionic Organics. EPA/600/R-02/016. Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Development. http://www.epa.gov/nheerl/download_files/publications/ESB_Compendium_v14_final.pdf.

USEPA. 2009. “User’s Guide and Technical Documentation KABAM Version 1.0.” Office of Pesticide Programs. www.epa.gov/oppefed1/models/water/kabam/kabam_user_guide.html.

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USEPA. n.d. “Bioavailability.” Region 8. www2.epa.gov/region8/hh-bioavailability.

USEPA. n.d. “BSAF (Biota Sediment Accumulation Factor.” Mid-Continent Ecology Division. www.epa.gov/med/Prods_Pubs/bsaf.htm.

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USEPA. n.d. “Field Operations Manual for Streams.” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. www.epa.gov/emap/html/pubs/docs/groupdocs/surfwatr/field/ewwsm01.html.

USEPA. n.d. “Measurement and Monitoring Technologies for the 21st Century: Sampling for Contaminants in Sediments and Sediment Porewater.” Technology Innovation Program. http://clu-in.org/programs/21m2/sediment.

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USEPA. n.d. “Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP).” Ecosystems Research Division Watershed/Water Quality Technical Support Center. www.epa.gov/athens/wwqtsc/html/wasp.html.

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