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Appendix A:
Selected References on Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems
Apitz, S. E., J. W. Davis, K. Finkelstein, D. L. Hohreiter, R. Hoke, R. H. Jensen, J. M. Jersak, V. J. Kirtay, E. E Mack, V. Magar, D. Moore, D. Reible, and R. Stahl. 2002. Critical Issues for Contaminated Sediment Management. MESO-02-TM-01US. San Diego: U.S. Navy, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center.

Arnot, J. A., and F. A. P. C. Gobas. 2006. “A Review of Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) and Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) Assessments for Organic Chemicals in Aquatic Organisms,” Environmental Reviews 14: 257–97.

Battelle. 2003. Guide for Incorporating Bioavailability Adjustments into Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments at U.S. Department of Defense Facilities, Part 1: Overview of Metals Bioavailability. Prepared for the Tri-Service Ecological Assessment Work Group.

Burkhard, L. P. 2003. “Factors Influencing the Design of Bioaccumulation Factor and Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Field Studies,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22(2): 351–60.

Di Toro, D. M. 2008. “Bioavailability of Chemicals in Sediments and Soils: Toxicological and Chemical Interactions,” pp. B-73–B-103 in SERDP and ESTCP Expert Panel Workshop on Research and Development Needs for Understanding and Assessing the Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments. Washington, D.C.: Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program and the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program.

Di Toro, D. M., H. Allen, H. Bergman, J. Meyer, P. Paquin, and R. Santore. 2001. “Biotic Ligand Model of the Acute Toxicity of Metals: 1. Technical Basis,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20: 2383–96.

Di Toro D. M., W. J. Berry, R. M. Burgess, D. R. Mount, T. P. O’Connor, and R. C. Swartz. 2005a. “The Predictive Ability of Sediment Quality Guidelines Derived Using Equilibrium Partitioning,” in Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments, R. J. Wenning, G. Bartley, C. Ingersoll, and D. Moore, eds. Pensacola, Fla.: SETAC Press.

Di Toro, D. M., J. D. Mahony, D. J. Hansen, K. J. Scott, A. R. Carlson, and G. T. Ankley. 1992. “Acid Volatile Sulfide Predicts the Acute Toxicity of Cadmium and Nickel in Sediments,” Environmental Science and Technology 26(1): 96–101.

Di Toro, D. M., and J. A. McGrath. 2000. “Technical Basis for Narcotic Chemicals and Polycyclic 14 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Criteria: II. Mixtures and Sediments,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19: 1971–82.

Di Toro, D. M, J. M. Mcgrath, D. J. Hansen, W. J. Berry, P. R. Paquin, R. Mathew, K. B. Wu, and R. C. Santore. 2005b. “Predicting Sediment Metal Toxicity Using a Sediment Biotic Ligand Model: Methodology and Initial Application,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24(10): 2410–27.

Di Toro, D. M., C. S. Zarba, D. J. Hansen, W. J. Berry, R. C. Swartz, C. E. Cowan, S. P. Pavlou, H. E. Allen, N. A. Thomas, and P. R. Paquin. 1991. “Technical Basis for Establishing Sediment Quality Criteria for Nonionic Organic Chemicals Using Equilibrium Partitioning,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 10: 1541–83.

Ehlers, L. J., and R. G. Luthy. 2003. “Contaminant Bioavailability in Soil and Sediment,” Environmental Science and Technology 37(15): 295A–302A.

Environment Canada. n.d. Conditions for Application of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) to Management of Sediments Containing Substances Which Biomagnify. Ontario Ministry of the Environment COA Sediment Decision-Making Task Group.

Evison, L. 2008. “Decision Tool for Remedy Evaluation,” presented at the Optimizing Decision-Making and Remediation at Complex Contaminated Sediment Sites Conference.

Griscom, S. B., and N. S. Fisher. 2004. “Bioavailability of Sediment-Bound Metals to Marine Bivalve Molluscs: An Overview,” Estuaries 27: 826–38.

Hansen, D. J., W. J. Berry, J. D. Mahony, W. S. Boothman, D. M. Di Toro, D. L. Robson, G. T. Ankley, D. Ma, Q. Yan, and C. E. Pesch. 1996. “Predicting the Toxicity of Metal-Contaminated Field Sediments Using Interstitial Concentration of Metals and Acid-Volatile Sulfide Normalizations,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15(12): 2080–94.

Hawthorne, S. B., N. A. Azzolina, E. F. Neuhauser, and J. P. Kreitinger. 2007. “Predicting Bioavailability of Sediment Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Hyalella azteca Using Equilibrium Partitioning, Supercritical Fluid Extraction, and Pore Water Concentrations,” Environmental Science and Technology 41: 6297–6304.

Luoma, S., and P. Rainbow. 2005. “Why Is Metal Bioaccumulation So Variable? Biodynamics as a Unifying Concept,” Environmental Science and Technology 39: 1921–1031.

MacDonald, D. A., M. B. Matta, L. J. Field, and M. D. Munn. 1997. The Coastal Resource Coordinator’s Bioassessment Manual. Report No. Hazmat 93-1. Seattle: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Menzie, C., M. H. Henning, J. Cura, K. Finkelstein, J. Gentile, J. Maughan, D. Mitchell, S. Petron, B. Potocki, S. Svirsky, and P. Tyler. 1996. “Special Report of the Massachusetts Weight-of-Evidence Workgroup: A Weight-of-Evidence Approach for Evaluating Ecological Risks,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 2: 277–304.

Nadeau, S., M. C. McCulloch, and T. S. Bridges. 2009. “Principles for Evaluating Remedial Options for Contaminated Sediment Sites,” presented at the 5th International Conference on Remediation of Contaminated Sediments, Jacksonville, Fla., Feb. 5.

NAVFAC (Naval Facilities Engineering Command). 2007. Biomonitoring: Guide for the Use of Biological Endpoints in Monitoring Species, Habitats, and Projects. Technical Report TR 2284-ENV. Port Hueneme, Calif.: NAVFAC Risk Assessment Workgroup and Argonne National Laboratory.

NRC (National Research Council). 2001. A Risk Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments. Committee on Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Sediments. Washington D.C.: National Academies Press.

NRC. 2003. Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments: Processes, Tools and Applications. Committee on Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

SERDP (Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program) and ESTCP (Environmental Security Technology Certification Program). 2004. SERDP/ESTCP Expert Panel Workshop on Research and Development Needs for the In Situ Management of Contaminated Sediments. August 2004, Charlottesville, V.A.

USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1989a. Assessing Human Health Risks from Chemically Contaminated Fish and Shellfish. EPA/503/8-89/002. Washington, D.C.:, Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection.

USEPA. 1998d. National Sediment Bioaccumulation Conference, Proceedings. EPA/823/R-98/002. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water.

USEPA. 2000a. Bioaccumulation Testing and Interpretation for the Purpose of Sediment Quality Assessment: Status and Needs. EPA/823/R-00/001. Washington, D.C.: Office of Water.

USEPA. 2002c. Principles for Managing Contaminated Sediment Risks at Hazardous Waste Sites. OSWER Directive 9285.6-08. Washington, D.C.: Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

USEPA. 2003b. Generic Ecological Assessment Endpoints (GEAEs) for Ecological Risk Assessment. EPA/630/P-02/004F. Washington, D.C.: Risk Assessment Forum.

USEPA. 2003d. Procedures for the Derivation of Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the Protection of Benthic Organisms: PAH Mixtures. EPA/600/R-02/013. Office of Research and Development.

USEPA. 2005c. Procedures for the Derivation of Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the Protection of Benthic Organisms: Metal Mixtures (Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Nickel, Silver, and Zinc). EPA/600/R-02/011. Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Development.

Wenning, R. J., G. E. Batley, C. G. Ingersoll, and D. W. Moore, eds. 2005. Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments. Pensacola, Fla.: SETAC Press.

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