Diffusion/Passive Samplers Resources & Links

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Technology/Methodology Status Report (PDF)

Fact Sheets


Regulatory Survey Regarding Polyethylene Diffusion Bag Sampling Preliminary Results (PDF)

Regulatory Survey Asking State Agencies Whether Any Regulations Prohibit the Use of Passive Devices for Sampling Groundwater (PDF)

Technical Publications

Evaluation of the Snap Sampler for Sampling Ground Water Monitoring Wells for VOCs and Explosives
Louise V. Parker and Nathan D. Mulherin August 2007

Evaluation of the Snap Sampler for Sampling Ground Water MonitoringWells for Inorganic Analytes
Louise V. Parker, Nathan D. Mulherin, and Gordon E. Gooch December 2008

Comparison of Pumped and Diffusion Sampling Methods to Monitor Concentrations of Perchlorate and Explosive Compounds in Ground Water, Camp Edwards, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2004 – 05
Denis R. LeBlanc and Don A. Vroblesky

Vroblesky, D.A., Chapelle, F.H., and Bradley, P.M., 2007, A simple pore water hydrogen diffusion syringe sampler : Ground Water, v. 45, no. 6, p. 798-802.

Vroblesky, D.A., Casey, C.C., and Lowery, M.A., 2007, Influence of dissolved oxygen convection on well sampling: Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation , v. 27, no. 3, p. 49-58.

Winter, T.C., Buso, D.C., Shattuck, P.C., Harte, P.T., Vroblesky, D.A., and Goode, D.J., 2008, The effect of terrace geology on ground-water movement and on the interaction of ground water and surface water on a mountainside near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, USA : Hydrological Processes, v. 22, p. 21-32.

Minimum Volumes for Analysis (XLS)
Minimum sample volumes required for common environmental analytical methods.

PDB Cost Model
A spreadsheet model to evaluate implications in the assessment of PDB deployment on a site-specific basis.

Results Report for the Demonstration of No-Purge GW Sampling Devices of Former McClellan AFB, CA (PDF)

Passive Diffusion Bag (PDB) Samplers – Frequently Asked Questions (PDF)

NEWMOA Advisory Opinion on PDBs
Northeast Waste Management Officials’ Association advisory opinion on the use of PDBs for VOC sample collection from groundwater wells.

PDB Demonstration Report (August 2003) (PDF)
Parsons Engineering Science report of PDB sampling at 14 Department of Defense installations comparing analytical results and costs from PDB and conventional samples

Lessons Learned and Success Stories

Lessons Learned (DOC)
A lesson learned is a good work practice, innovative approach, or experience that is captured and shared to improve the intended application or raise awareness. It may also be an adverse work practice or experience that is captured and shared to avoid recurrence. If you have a lesson to share, please contact the team lead listed on the team public page (see button above).

Latest Success Stories (DOC)


Library of archived presentations, research, and articles on passive sampling devices, dated from 1999 to 2004 (XLS)
This is an Excel spreadsheet containing links to downloadable PDF files of each of the articles.

Diffusion/Passive Samplers Vendors

Columbia Analytical Services (CAS)
Vendor/distributor of Polyethylene Diffusion Bag (PDB) and Rigid Porous Polyethylene (RPP) Samplers; installation instructions, and links to papers describing applications at McClellan AFB and other sites.

EON Products
Vendor/distributor of diffusion bag samplers; installation instructions, and links to papers describing applications at McClellan AFB and other sites

Vendor/distributor of the Hydrasleeve Passive GW Sampler that collects a instantaneous grab-sampling water samples from groundwater wells without purging or mixing fluid from other intervals. User installation instructions and links to papers describing applications at McClellan.

ProHydro, Inc.
Vendor/distributor of the Snap Sampler is a passive groundwater sampling device that seals bottles in-situ under the water surface using a remote trigger. This is considered an equilibrated grab-sampling device that collects a whole water sample at a fixed sampling depth.

W.L. Gore and Associates
Vendor of GORE TM Modules, a sorbent, diffusion-based passive groundwater sampler; user instructions and device specifications; US EPA ETV verified.